Joseph Mallord William Turner



On loan

ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum (Aarhus, Denmark): Turner Watercolours: Sun is God

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Oil paint on mahogany
Support: 679 × 918 mm
frame: 975 × 1200 × 110 mm
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856

Catalogue entry

[from] Nos. 247–8b : George IV's Visit to Edinburgh, 1822 [N02857-N02858; N02879-N02880]

IN August 1822, the year after his coronation, George IV paid a two-week state visit to Edinburgh, the first by a British monarch since the Act of Union of 1707. The Royal Squadron arrived at Leith on 14 August and George IV landed the following day, staying at the Palace of Holyrood until 29 August. The visit was staged by Sir Walter Scott. A number of artists attended the occasion, including Turner, who seems to have been in Edinburgh as early as 7 August (he was definitely there by 14 August) and was presumably there until the end of the royal visit.

Gerald Finley has suggested that Turner planned a series of paintings covering this visit, to be engraved and probably in the hope of royal patronage.

Turner used two sketchbooks in Edinburgh, the ‘King's Visit to Scotland’ sketchbook (CC) and the ‘King at Edinburgh’ sketchbook (CCI), the latter containing a double-spread of nineteen rough composition sketches (p. 44 verso and inside back cover; both sketchbooks are repr. in full in Finley 1981); four of these can be linked with paintings in the Turner Bequest, two long identified with this visit (Nos. 247 [N02857] and 248 [N02858]), the other two only recently identified by Finley, a discovery reflected in the exhibition and accompanying book of Turner and George the Fourth in Edinburgh, 1822, 1981–2.

All four paintings are on panel, relatively unusual for Turner, two being approximately 2 1/2 inches higher than the others. It is uncertain how many pictures Turner would have completed had the scheme been fulfilled. It is also uncertain why the scheme was abandoned but the reason is hinted at in a letter of 3 December 1823 to J.C. Schetky. From this it appears that Schetky had offered Turner the use of one of his drawings of the Royal Barge, only roughly sketched by Turner during his visit, but, so Turner writes, ‘there is an end to that commission owing to the difficulty attending engraving the subjects’ (Gage loc. cit.). Turner had presumably abandoned work on the paintings by this time.

Lit. Finley 1975, pp. 27–35; Gage 1980, p. 90; Finley 1981.

248a. [N02879] Sir Walter Scott going out to meet George IV c. 1822


Mahogany, 26 3/4 × 36 1/8 (68 × 91·5)

Coll. Turner Bequest 1856 (152, one of ‘3 each (ditto [panel])’ 3'0" × 2'3"; identified by chalk number on back); transferred to the Tate Gallery 1919.

Exh. Tate Gallery and Edinburgh 1981–2.

Lit. Finley 1981, pp. 32, 38–43, pl. 14.

The subject has been identified by Gerald Finley. Sir Walter Scott went out to the Royal George at Leith on

14 August to greet George IV and present him with a silver St Andrew's cross. The composition is based on ‘No. 1’ of the nineteen composition sketches; this was also developed in the watercolour (CLXVIII-B; repr. Finley op. cit., pl. 12) used for the vignette on the title-page of volume 2 of Sir Walter Scott's Provincial Antiquities and Picturesque Scenery of Scotland, 1826. The oil seems to be based on the drawing in the ‘King's Visit to Edinburgh’ sketchbook (CC-62).

In the first edition of this catalogue this painting appeared as No. 277, ‘Shipping’, and was dated ‘c. 1825–30?’.

Severely overcleaned in the past in all areas except the top corners. In particular the sails of the ship in the middle distance on the right have practically disappeared.

Published in:
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984

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