Impressionism developed in France in the nineteenth century and is based on the practice of painting out of doors and spontaneously ‘on the spot’ rather than in a studio from sketches. Main impressionist subjects were landscapes and scenes of everyday life
Impressionism was developed by Claude Monetand other Paris-based artists from the early 1860s. (Although the process of painting on the spot can be said to have been pioneered in Britain by John Constablein around 1813–17 through his desire to paint nature in a realistic way).
Instead of painting in a studio, the impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by working quickly, in front of their subjects, in the open air (en plein air) rather than in a studio. This resulted in a greater awareness of light and colour and the shifting pattern of the natural scene. Brushwork became rapid and broken into separate dabs in order to render the fleeting quality of light.
The first group exhibition was in Paris in 1874 and included work by Monet, Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Paul Cezanne. The work shown was greeted with derision with Monet’sImpression, Sunriseparticularly singled out for ridicule and giving its name (used by critics as an insult) to the movement. Seven further exhibitions were then held at intervals until 1886.
River of dreams
In this article, art historian John House and filmmaker Patrick Keiller talk about how London’s light has had an impact on the depiction of its river, referencing the work of Monet, Whistler and Turner.
Impressionism at Tate
- Take a look at impressionism in Tate’s collection
- Or browse the selection of works in the slideshow below
Many of the core impressionist artists have all had exhibitions at Tate. Take a look at the exhibition text for further information about their work.
- Paul Cézanne: an Exhibition of Watercolours (11 April 1946 – 12 May 1946)
- Paintings by Cézanne (29 September 1954 – 27 October 1954)
- Degas (20 September 1952 – 19 October 1952)
- Degas, Sickert and Toulouse-Lautrec (5 October 2005 – 15 January 2006)
- Claude Monet (26 September 1957 – 3 November 1957)
- Oil Paintings by Camille Pissarro (27 June 1931 – 3 October 1931)
- Renoir (25 September 1953 – 25 October 1953)
Monet in focus
When Monet’s paintings first appeared they must have looked absolutely astonishing…those lurid artificial colours must have seemed as though they had come from out of space or something
Beauty, power and space
Jeremy Lewison, the curator of Turner Monet Twombly, explores the influence of Turner on Monet’s work. Monet had admired Turner’s paintings in 1871 when he was in London with Camille Pissarro.
Curator Jeremy Lewison explains why Monet created a lilly pond in his back garden and the pain behind Monet’s iconic impressionist pieces.
Impressionism in context
Impressionism reached prominence in during the 1870s and 1880s. Watch curator Allison Smith discuss what else was happening at the time in the art world.